The Penny Bank

1 March 1909

Canadians are known for being careful with their money. While this may have been true in the past, the reputation is more apparent than real today. The average Canadian household’s debt to income ratio is much higher than that of households in other countries, and seems to touch a new record level every year. Canadians also save a much smaller portion of their incomes today than they did their parents or grandparents. Still, Canadian financial institutions have been more conservatively run than their American and British counterparts, a factor that helped them get through the 2008 global financial crisis with only minor bruises. The Canadian reputation for thrift and prudence may have originated with our canny Scottish forebears, who founded many of Canada’s chartered banks during the nineteenth century, such as the Bank of Nova Scotia and the Bank of Montreal.

The thriftiness of our grandparents’ generation was also undoubtedly influenced by the Great Depression when they had little choice but to scrimp and save. But another important factor was the Penny Bank of Toronto, later known as the Penny Bank of Ontario. While a tiddler in the Canadian financial seas, the Penny Bank helped to instill a sense of thrift in hundreds of thousands of youngsters throughout Ontario and beyond during the early decades of the twentieth century. And, yes, Scots played a big role in its establishment too.

Penny BAnk Mcmurchy

Angus McMurchy, K.C., Key backer and organizer of the Penny Bank of Toronto. Carmichael Family Online.

The Penny Bank had its roots in informal saving associations established by religious groups in the late nineteenth century for working class men and women. At that time, one needed to make a minimum deposit of $1, more than $25 in today’s money, to open an account at a bank, or at the government-owned Post Office Savings Bank. This was beyond the means of the very poor. Two such groups in Toronto were the Savings Association of the St Andrews Presbyterian Church and the Victor Five-Cent Savings Association organized by the Fred Victor Mission. The Mission, which continues to thrive today, was established by Hart Massey, a prominent Toronto industrialist and devout Methodist who founded Massey-Ferguson, the agricultural equipment company. The Mission was named after his son, Fred Victor, who died in 1890 at age thirteen. In 1900, the Mission organized an informal “penny bank” with the Toronto Board of Education through which students at the Lord Dufferin School could make small deposits and earn interest. It was very successful. So successful that its backers thought that a more formal structure for the savings association would be advisable, and approached the Dominion Government for legislation.

Instead of incorporating the Penny Bank of Toronto through a private Act of Parliament, the government favoured more generic legislation to allow for the incorporation of penny banks throughout Canada. The Penny Bank Act was passed by the Dominion Government in 1903 as a way of encouraging thrift among the “labouring classes,” especially their children. In the event, the Penny Bank of Toronto was apparently the only such bank to be incorporated under the Act though there is a brief reference in the legislative record of the 1920s to a very small Penny Bank of Chicoutimi in Quebec.

The Penny Bank of Toronto, which brought together the St Andrews and Victor thrift organizations, was not an ordinary bank, but rather a philanthropic institution supported by many of Toronto’s prominent citizens. Early backers included Angus McMurchy, K.C., the solicitor for the Canadian Pacific Railway, Sir William Hearst, who became Premier of Ontario from 1914-1919, and Sir Byron Edmund Walker, president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce from 1907 to his death in 1924. Sir George Burn of the Bank of Ottawa later joined the Penny Bank’s Board of Directors. The manager of the Penny Bank was H. D. Lockhart Gordon, a principal in the Canadian accounting Clarkson, Gordon & Dilworth.  The Penny Bank, a not-for-profit institution, had no shareholders and no capital. Its backers provided a guarantee fund, initially $10,000, to support the organization. They also managed the institution. However, they were forbidden by the legislation from receiving any dividend or compensation for their work. The Bank payed depositors 3 per cent interest, the standard rate of interest of the day. All funds raised by the Bank were deposited with the Post Office Savings Bank owned by the Dominion Government. The maximum size of an account was $300. Despite the Bank’s backers managing the institution for free, there were clerical costs associated with keeping track of deposits and withdrawals. These costs were partially offset by interest earned on the guarantee fund. As well, the Post Office Savings Bank financially assisted the Penny Bank by giving it a preferential interest rate. Initially, this rate was set at ½ percentage point above the 3 per cent rate the Post Office paid on its deposits. The government increased this margin to 1 percentage point in 1911. Over time, the Penny Bank also received various grants from the Ontario and Dominion governments to help sustain its operations.

While the Penny Bank was open to all, its focus was on public school children. Supporters hoped that young, working class kids who might not otherwise be exposed to the banking system would learn through personal experience the value of thrift and the wonders of compound interest, thereby improving their quality of life in later years. Youngsters could bring in their pennies every Monday to their classroom teacher who would record their deposits in their personal passbooks. Deposits as low as one cent were accepted. School principals would receive the funds and in turn deposit them in the Penny Bank. Students or their parents went to a designated chartered bank to withdraw funds.

The Penny Bank of Toronto quickly spread throughout the Toronto School Board and beyond. Within five years, it was operating in schools in Oakville, Guelph, Galt, Port Hope and Orangeville. It reached Ottawa in 1909, though not without considerable discussion and opposition by Ottawa teachers who had to run the programme in their classrooms. It was estimated that it took thirty minutes a week for a teacher to handle Penny Bank deposits. The Ottawa’s Public School Board recommended a pilot project at five public schools—Glashan, Cambridge, Creighton, Osgoode and Elgin. But at a meeting of teachers on the issue, of the sixty-nine teachers that attended only seventeen supported the Penny Bank. School trustees were also divided, with some calling the Penny Bank “a fad” that had no bearing on education, and would cost as much as $1,200 per year to operate. One trustee believed that the Penny Bank would make “mammon worshippers of the children.” He maintained that the proper place “to teach little ones the value and importance of thrift [was] in the home.” (Sounds like what some people say about sex education today!)

Among the strong supporters of the Penny Bank was the Ottawa Journal newspaper. Several editorials in favour of the Bank appeared in the paper. It rejected the teachers’ opposition as being irrelevant saying that it was for the School Board to decide. The newspaper argued that the Penny Bank had direct and practical educational benefits that would prepare children, especially those from working-class backgrounds, “for the battle of life.” It noted that 95 per cent of public school children went directly from school to earning their living. Consequently, “it naturally follows that the education be as utilitarian in nature as possible.”

Toronto’s successful experience was also noted. The newspaper claimed that children there were saving with a definite objective in mind rather than simply hoarding their money. “What wasted 5-cent pieces could not buy, saved 5-cent pieces, which invariably bulked into five dollars, could buy.” It also opined that during a recent economic downturn, which it described as an “out-of-work spell,” children’s savings helped their parents over “a most critical and trying time,” that prevented them from appealing to “the charity department.”

Despite teacher opposition, the pilot programme went ahead as planned though with one small change. Owing to concern expressed by school principals that they would have to leave their schools during the school day to deposit their Penny Bank collections, it was arranged that a clerk from the Traders Bank of Canada, the institution in Ottawa that initially handled the funds on behalf of the Penny Bank, would pick up the cash. Start-up expenses for ledgers, stationery and passbooks in the five schools was estimated at $65.

Penny Bank passbook 1

Passbook (exterior) for the Penny Bank of Ontario, October 1939, Courtesy of the Bank of Canada Museum, 1991.0007.00005.

On 1 March 1909, principals in the five test schools explained the Penny Bank system to students in assembly. Small passbooks were handed out. Pennies, nickels and dimes quickly flowed in. Of the five schools that participated in the pilot project, Glashan School topped the list that first day, raising $52.16 from 173 depositors out of a school body of 550 pupils. Deposits ranged in size from one cent to three dollars. The collection might have been higher as many students had forgotten to bring in their pennies that morning. Two months later, the youngsters in the five schools had squirreled away over $1,000 (equivalent to more than $22,000 in today’s money).

Penny Bank passbook 2

Passbook (interior) of the Savings Bank of Ontario, 1939, instructions for depositor and weekly deposits, Courtesy of the Bank of Canada Museum, 1991.0007.00005.

With the pilot project a great success, it was expanded the following year to the Rosemont Avenue, Kent Street, Percy Street and Wellington Street Public Schools, and subsequently to all nineteen Ottawa public schools.  By end-March 1910, Ottawa students had more than $3,800 on deposit in their names in the Penny Bank of Toronto. By December, the amount had topped $8,500. That Christmas, the youngsters “had the means to be generous gift-givers” said the Ottawa Journal that also opined that without the Penny Bank, the money would “likely to have been long spent.”

Penny Bank passbook 3

Passbook (interior) of the Savings Bank of Ontario, 1939, instructions for teachers, Courtesy of the Bank of Canada Museum, 1991.0007.00005.

Over the next two decades, deposits in the Penny Bank grew steadily as schools across Ontario and in other provinces joined the programme. The Y.M.C.A. also participated. Newspapers regularly reported on deposit growth. Schools competed on how much they could save. In 1921, Penny Bank directors initiated a contest for a banner to the school that had “made the best use of the bank.” The banner read: “Prize Banner, Province of Ontario, Penny Bank Competition” with a maple leaf and a penny centred on it, with space for the names of five schools and the years in which they won it. That first year, St Patrick’s Public School in Guelph won the banner, with the Hester How school of Toronto in second place.

The 1920s brought changes to the Penny Bank. With more and more schools outside of Toronto joining the scheme, its name was changed to the Penny Bank of Ontario in 1923. More schools and rapidly growing deposits also meant rising administrative costs. Bank directors sought and received government approval to invest the institution’s growing guarantee fund in higher-yielding assets, including Victory bonds and subsequently mortgages to help offset costs. Penny bank deposits continued to be invested with the Post Office. Reflecting the growth of the scheme in Ottawa, the Penny Bank hired Mrs Evelyn Topley in 1924 to administer the scheme, a position she held until her retirement in early 1939.

By 1929, total Penny Bank deposits had topped the $1 million mark with more than 350 participating schools. Ottawa deposits reached almost $53,000. Although teachers complained about the detailed work required to keep track of thousands of small deposits, the Journal reckoned that the “moral effect on children [was] incalculable.”

Despite the onset of the Great Depression, Penny Bank deposits continued to grow during the early 1930s, peaking at about $1.5 million in 1932 with 466 participating schools. Deposits of Ottawa’s nineteen public schools touched almost $59,000. However, the prevailing poor economic conditions began to take its toll. Ottawa school deposits began to slip, falling to just over $43,000 by the end of 1937. At the depth of the Depression, the Ontario Government provided a $150,000 guarantee to back-stop the Bank and protect the children from losses. There were allegations in the Provincial legislature that the provincial guarantee was required because the guarantee fund put up by the Penny Bank private backers had sustained losses.

Penny BAnk Winding up 6-7-48

Liquidation notice for the Penny Bank of Ontario, The Ottawa Journal, 6 July 1948.

But it was the onset of World War II that crippled the Penny Bank. Anxious to do their bit, children began withdrawing their savings to invest in war bonds and war savings stamps. Deposits dropped precipitously. By December 1942, Ottawa deposits in the Penny Bank had dropped by almost two thirds from their peak. At the end of February 1943, the directors of the institution suspended new deposits in the Penny Bank for the duration of the war. Existing account holders could keep their funds in the Bank and continue to earn interest but they could not make additional deposits.

The Bank never again re-opened for business. At the request of its managers, the Penny Bank was put into liquidation and ceased operations as of the beginning of August 1948. The winding up of the institution was supervised by the Inspector General of Banks. At that time, total deposits and accrued interest stood at roughly $164,000 in 128,000 accounts. Most of these accounts were dormant. Depositors had the choice of receiving a cheque for their balances or transferring their accounts to the Post Office Savings Bank. Just over $51,000 was so transferred. Deposit liabilities in dormant, unclaimed accounts of less than $1 were immediately extinguished. After paying all remaining liabilities, the Penny Bank gave the residual balance of $101,941.14 to the Toronto Hospital for Sick Children.

Sources:

Carmichael Family Online, 2017. McMurchy Obituaries, https://carmichaelfamilyonline.wordpress.com/mcmurchy-family/mcmurchy-documents-pictures/mcmurchy-obituraries/.

Debates of the House of Commons, various years.

Debates of the Senate of Canada, various years.

Filey, Mike, 1994. Toronto Sketches 3, The Way We Were, Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd.

Fred Victor, 2017. Fred Victor Beginnings, http://www.fredvictor.org/home.

Germain, Richard N, 1996. Dollars Through The Doors, A Pre-1930 History of Bank Marketing in America, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Globe (The), 1922. “Penny Bank Banner,” 28 February.

Ottawa Journal (The), 1904. “The Penny Bank in Toronto,” 21 June.

————————–, 1906. “A Philanthropic Institution,” 2 June.

————————–, 1907. “Toronto Penny Bank,” 17 October.

————————–, 1909, “Penny Banks,” 8 January.

————————–, 1909. “Penny Savings Banks,” 2 February.

————————–, 1909. “Penny Banks To Open Here Soon,” 10 February.

————————–, 1909. “Deposits Made Into Penny Banks,” 1 March.

————————–, 1909. “Penny Banks Are Opened,” 28 February.

————————–, 1910. “The Children At Christmas,” 2 December.

————————–, 1912. “Criticism of R.A. Sproule,” 12 February.

————————–, 1921, “Penny Bank’s Directors Will Give A Prize Banner,” 25 January.

————————–, 1921. “Save The Pennies Campaign Coming,” 15 February.

————————–, 1926. ‘Have Never Had Run On The Penny Banks,” 26 February.

————————–, 1927. “Sir William Hearst,” 30 June.

————————–, 1929. “Ontario Children Save A Million,” 9 January.

————————–, 1929. “Penny Bank Bill Passes Senate,” 21 May.

————————–, 1931. “Increase Is Shown Penny Bank Savings,” 17 June.

————————–, 1936. “Says Poor Investments Made By Penny Bank,” 31 March.

————————–, 1939. “Toronto Girl Succeeds Mrs E.E. Topley,” 19 April.

————————–, 1943. “Suspend Deposits in Penny Bank,” 26 February.

————————-, 1948. “End of the Penny Bank,” 22 March.

————————-, 1948. “Ontario Penny Bank Finally Closes Its Doors,” 3 August.

 

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We Want The Animals!

1 March 1967

In the mid-1960s, one of the most promising, up-and-coming rock ‘n’ roll groups was The Animals. The British group, formed in 1963 with the gravel-voiced, bluesy Eric Burdon as lead vocalist, followed The Beatles across the Atlantic and helped to spearhead the “British Invasion” of North America. By Canada’s centennial year, the band already had a number of hit singles in the United States and Canada. It’s rendition of The House of the Rising Sun (Click here), which had topped the British singles’ charts in the summer of 1964, became number one in the United States that October. Another song, We Gotta Get Out Of This Place (Click here) recorded in 1965, took the number two spot in Canada. The song became the unofficial anthem of U.S. soldiers in Vietnam. Other big hits of the time included See See Rider and Don’t Bring Me Down, both released in 1966. The group appeared a phenomenal six times on the Ed Sullivan Show, one of the most avidly watched television shows of the era, once in 1964, three times in 1965 and twice in 1966.

The Animals

Early Publicity Photo of the original Animals, c. 1964, author: Richard William Laws, Wikipedia.

Imagine the excitement for Ottawa rock fans when it was announced that Eric Burdon and the Animals were to play on 1 March 1967 in the Coliseum at Lansdowne Park. This wasn’t the same group that recorded the band’s initial hits. That early group consisted of Erik Burdon (vocals), Alan Price (keyboard), John Steel (drums), Hilton Valentine (guitar) and Byron “Chas” Chandler (bass). But by late 1966, the group had disintegrated owing to a combination of drugs, alcohol, egos, and bad management. Frayed tempers due to long days of performing and touring didn’t help either.  In late 1966, Eric Burdon put together a new group called Eric Burdon and the Animals, consisting of Erik Burdon (vocals), Vic Braggs (guitar), Barry Jenkins (drums), Danny McCulloch (bass), and John Weider (guitar). The addition of John Weider, who also played classical violin, gave a different dimension to the band. It was this version of the Animals, playing many of the old Animals tunes, that toured North America in early1967, starting at Hunter College in New York in February 1967. (Click here for their rendition of See See Rider.) They came to Canada in late February with stops in Hamilton and then Ottawa before returning to New York to continue their U.S. tour.

The Ottawa concert was organized by Peter Charrier through an agency, assisted by James McConnell, a dance promoter, who helped with advertising and the distribution of tickets. Tickets were $2.50 or $3.00, equivalent to roughly $18-$22 today. The venue for the event was the Coliseum on Bank Street at Lansdowne Park. The Coliseum, constructed in 1926, was the venue for innumerable Ottawa political, social and athletic events. Before it was demolished in 2010 to make way for the redevelopment of Lansdowne Park, it was the home of the Ottawa 67s Junior A hockey team’s ticket office.

Eric Burdon and the Animals

Eric Burdon and the Animals, Publicity Photograph, 1967, Copyright ABKCO Records, Inc., Wikipedia.

The warm-up band for the event was Ottawa’s own five-piece The Eyes of Dawn. Formed in 1966, the group came to local prominence after winning a music contest in Hull. It subsequently became the house band for La Petite Souris coffee shop. In January 1967, it released its debut single Time To Be Going, (Click here) a cover of a song by The Fortunes, under the Sir John A. label. Being asked to be the warm-up band to Eric Burdon and the Animals represented the peak of the group’s short career.

The concert, which attracted more than 2,500 excited teenagers to the Coliseum, began without incident. But when The Eyes of Dawn had finished warming up the crowd and had left the stage, Eric Burdon and the Animals failed to show. For an hour and a half, an increasingly irritated and annoyed audience was left waiting without any announcements. Chants of “We want the Animals” changed to shouts of “Refund” and “We want our money.” Behind the scenes, the concert promoter was engaged in frantic negotiations with the band. While accounts vary, it seems there was a contract dispute. Apparently, the group was contracted to play two 40-minute sessions for $3,500. However, the Animals wanted to give one 50-minute performance. Charrier was agreeable as long as there was a pay cut. He claimed that he had already paid $1,750 up front, and was willing to give another $500, but the group wanted $1,000. Another report suggested that Charrier had offered the group only $300 in advance of the concert. Eric Burdon is quoted as saying “I am a product. I deliver my product and it’s over. Therefore the agency requires I be paid before I deliver.” Regardless, Charrier walked out of the negotiations expecting that the band would be forced to play. Burdon called his bluff and the Animals left the Coliseum without playing a single song. Later, Dan McCullough, the group’s bass guitarist, said that this was the first time that they had run into money troubles. While he said they were sorry, they had no choice but to refuse to play.

Inside, tempers were rising. When somebody turned the Coliseum’s lights out, the fans went wild. A sit-in to get ticket refunds turned violent as hundreds of annoyed teenagers vented their anger on their surroundings. The stage was destroyed, chairs thrown, and equipment damaged. Even floorboards were ripped up. A small fire was also reportedly set in a washroom. Damage and clean-up costs were later placed at $7,917. It took more than fifty police and security guards ninety minutes to restore order. At one point, the police threatened to turn fire hoses onto the demonstrators. From time to time, the crowd shouted “police brutality.” Twenty-five teenagers were arrested, though most were subsequently released without charge. A measure of peace was restored when police officers organized a return of ticket stubs to the audience so that spectators could receive a refund. Concert goers had handed in their entire ticket when they entered the Coliseum, rather than retain a ticket stub. Charrier claimed that is was a requirement of the Canada Central Exhibition Association, the Coliseum’s management, to facilitate the operation of automatic ticket-counting machines.

Two days after the riot, five teenagers arrested in the affray pled guilty in magistrates’ court for causing a disturbance, and received a suspended sentence and six-month probation. The magistrate, L.A. Sherwood, stressed that he was being lenient since many more teenagers had been involved in the riot but had not been caught. He also noted that while he had considerable sympathy for the offenders, there was no excuse for what they did. A charge against another teenager for destroying property owned by the Canada Central Exhibition Association was subsequently dropped on a technicality; the CCEA didn’t own the destroyed property. Another charge of underage drinking against the same individual was also dropped as police couldn’t prove that the young man had been imbibing from the half-empty flask of vodka found in his back pocket.

The Ottawa Journal ran an editorial entitled “Youth Running Wild.” It opined that the crowd had “every right to be angry,” but was shocked by “the wanton destruction and contempt for authority.” The newspaper placed the blame on the glorification of civil disobedience. “Teenagers have precedent aplenty for defying the police and taking matters into their own hands.” It thought that “crooked thinking” needed “some straightening out,” and that “discipline in home and school should be tightened up, police must be rapid and thorough…and courts should be clear that the price of lawlessness is intimidating.”

The following day, a remorseful crowd of 50 to 75 young men and women marched from the Ottawa police station to City Hall to apologize for their actions. Their initial intention was to confront the police and seek an explanation for police actions during the riot. However, the youths decided instead to march to City Hall. Acting Mayor Ken Fogarty met the teenagers on the front steps. Group spokesman, Tom Boyle, age 17, said “We have come to make a public apology.” He mentioned that when the Animals didn’t appear, a sit-down had been planned, but things got out of hand. Fogarty replied that the riot had blackened the name of Ottawa and that the city’s youth had been branded as irresponsible. He added, however, that the promoter had been at fault for not explaining the situation. He reminded the group that when somebody owes you something, you have a financial claim; “you don’t knock their block off.” The Acting Mayor thought their apology would go a long way towards correcting the image of the city’s teenagers.

The Animals TOJ, 20-3-67

Refund Advertisement for the Concert, The Ottawa Journal, 20 March 1967.

It took some time for the police to track down Peter Charrier, the principal organizer of the concert, as Charrier had initially disappeared, unwilling to be interviewed until he sought legal counsel. He later said that rumours that he had bunked off to Jamaica were untrue. He promised that all money would be refunded to all concert spectators even those who did not receive a ticket stub from the police. Subsequently, advertisements appeared in local newspapers indicating that concert goers were entitled to “refunds or part thereof” if they applied to certain Treble Clef stores and sign an affidavit indicating that they had purchased a ticket. The operative words were “part thereof.” The organizer later indicated that ticket holders would only get half refunds as they had enjoyed half a concert. In the event, the record is unclear how many concert goers actually received a refund. By the end of May, the Ottawa Journal had been unable to find anybody who had received a refund.

As for the musicians, Eric Burdon and the Animals left the Coliseum immediately for New York. Over coming years, the Animals continued to morph and change as band members came and went. Two days after the riot, The Eyes of Dawn went on to play a gig at The Oak Door, a teen nightclub at 485 Bank Street. The group put out a second single in late 1967 called Kaleidoscope, (Click here) and folded the next year.

After much discussion, the City of Ottawa on a 16-7 Council vote agreed to cover the cost of damages to the Coliseum. With a $5,000 deductible, insurance covered the remaining $2,917. The Coliseum never again held a rock ‘n’ roll concert.

Eric Burdon returned to Ottawa in 2013 for Bluesfest. At age 76 (as of 2017), he continues to perform, bringing the old Animals tunes as well as new ones to appreciative audiences.

 

Sources:

Bunch, Adam, 2017. “A Rock ‘N’ Roll Riot in Ottawa,” Canadian Music Hall of Fame (The), http://canadianmusichalloffame.ca/tag/the-eyes-of-dawn/.

Canadian Music Blog, 2017. Top Hits of 1967, https://musiccanada.wordpress.com/2015/10/29/top-100-singles-of-1967-in-canada/.

Canadian Pop Encyclopedia, 2015. The Eyes of Dawn, http://jam.canoe.com/Music/Pop_Encyclopedia/E/Eyes_Of_Dawn.html.

Canuckistan Music, 2017. The Eyes Of Dawn, http://www.canuckistanmusic.com/index.php?maid=194.

Classic Pop Icons, 2010. We Gotta Get Out Of This Place, http://www.classicpopicons.com/song-of-the-week-26-we-gotta-get-out-of-this-place/.

Hannan, Ross & Arnold, Cory, 2010. Eric Burdon and The Animals, http://www.chickenonaunicycle.com/Eric%20Burdon.htm.

Globe and Mail (The), 1967. “5 Youths On Probation For Ottawa Riot Roles,” 3 March.

————————–, 1967. “Animals’ Fans Win A Refund,” 4 March.

Official Ed Sullivan Site (The), 2010. The Animals, http://www.edsullivan.com/artists/the-animals.

Ottawa Journal (The), 1967. “Animals: Wouldn’t Appear, 2,500 Teens Riot, Coliseum Wrecked. 2 March.

————————–, 1967. “five Admit Charges,” 2 March.

————————–, 1967. “Yourth Running Wild,” 3 March.

————————–, 1967. “Promoter Hopes to Refund Money,” 3 March.

————————–, 1967. “Apology – Protest For A Riot,” 4 March.

————————–, 1967. “Youth Charges Dismissed,” 25 March.

————————–, 1967. “Below the Hill,” 27 May.

————————–, 1967. “City Balks At Paying Riot Costs,” 1 June.

————————–, 1967. “City to Pay Coliseum Riot Damages,” 17 October.

Ottawa Tonite, 2013. “Eric Burdon at Bluesfest, 2013,” http://www.ottawatonite.com/2013/07/eric-burdon-at-ottawa-bluesfest-2013/.

Rolling Stones, 1991(?), “Eric Burdon – The Animals and Beyond,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPUcvLMs36E.